Uighur-script Mongolian Resources
Verbs, Converbs and Verbal Nouns
The Simple Imperative
The imperative is simply the stem of the verb minus any suffixes. Mongolian dictionaries list verbs
in the nomen futuri case; i.e. the verb stem plus qu/kü depending on vowel harmony.
Therefore, to form the simple imperative of any Mongolian verb,
all you have to do is remove this final qu/kü.
- yabu "go!" (from yabuqu)
- ügüle "speak!" (from ügülekü)
- ide "eat!" (from idekü)
The benedictive represents a polite request directed at one or more people.
The benedictive is negated by placing the particle buu before it.
- sonosuγtun "please listen" (from sonos- to hear)
- medegtün "please find out" (from mede- to know)
- qariγtun "please return" (from qari- to return)
- buu aγurlaγtun "please don't be angry" (from aγurla- to be angry)
The prescriptive represents a request aimed at a second person.
It occurs only in texts influenced by the colloquial language.
- sonosuγarai "listen!" (from sonos- to hear)
- yabuγarai "go!" (from yabu- to go)
The Imperative of the Third Person
The third person imperative in -tuγai/-tügei is used to express commands
which are to be carried out by a third person.
- boltuγai "may it be so!" (from bol- to be/to become)
- iretügei "He must come!/Let him come!" (from ire- to come)
- kelelčetügei "Discuss it amongst yourselves!"
(from kelelče- to disucss something together)
The Voluntative (1st person singular)
The voluntative is used to express wishes. In the classical and literary language the suffix is
-suγai/-sügei whereas in the pre-classical language the suffix -su/-sü.
- bolsuγai "I shall make it so!" (from bol- to be/to become)
- yabusuγai "Let me go" (from yabu- to go)
The Voluntative (1st person plural)
- jirγačiγay-a "Let us enjoy together!" (from jirγačiγa- to enjoy collectively)
- yabuy-a "Let us go!" (from yabu- to go)
The optative is used to express wishes which the speaker hopes will come true but which at the same
time are considered highly unlikely to do so. It is negated with the particle bitegei and can refer to
all persons. It only occurs in modern popular writing.
- yabuγasai "Ah, if only he'd go! (but probably won't)" (from yabu- to go)
- iregesei "If only they'd come!" (from ire- to come)
- bitegei iregesei "I hope they don't come! (but they probably will)" (from ire- to come)
The dubitative is used to express the fear that someone might perform some action which is considered
undesirable, and so this imperative can also act as an entreaty not to do something. It has no negation.
- iregüjei "What if they come?" (from ire- to come)
- iregüjei "Make sure they don't come!" (from ire- to come)
- umartaγujai "Make sure he doesn't forget!" (from umarta- to forget)